Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome Congenital disorder with a predisposition to tumor development o Increased risk of Wilms, neuroblastoma, adrenal tumors, and hepatoblastoma Clinical features include: macrosomia, omphalocele, macroglossia, organomegaly, as well as hypoglycemia Labs will show a decreased BG, increased insulin and IGF-2 Treatment is resection of embryonal tumors and to maintain BG levels. DiGeorge syndrome Defective development of the 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches leading to a hypoplastic thymus and parathyroids Caused by a 22q11 deletion Clinical presentation is variable but commonly seen are CATCH o Cardiac anomalies Congenital heart disease e.
Galactosemia Most common form is galactosephosphate uridylyltransferase deficiency o Leads to accumulation of galactosephosphate and galactitol Clinical features include: poor feeding, FTT, jaundice, hepatomegaly, cataracts, cognitive impairment, and hypoglycemia o Will also have increased susceptibility to E. SCID Congenital disorder characterized by severe, recurrent infections e. Polycythemia In neonate can occur if during pregnancy there is hypoxia e. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma Rare, benign, and rapidly expanding tumors that occur exclusively in boys Present with a mass arising from the roof of nasopharynx and patient will have recurrent epistaxis Diagnosis is with cranial CT scan with contrast o Will show strong contrast enhancement due to increased vascularity Complications include pressure necrosis on adjacent structures e.
Orchidopexy Surgical correction of undescended testis is recommended months of age o Spontaneous descent is unlikely to occur after that Early surgery will optimize normal growth and fertility potential Ideally, orchidopexy should be performed before 1 year of age and is the surgical procedure of choice. Sturge-Weber syndrome Most characteristic is port-wine stain i.
Tuberous sclerosis Characteristic findings include: o Skin manifestations adenoma sebaceum and ash-leaf spots o Brain tumors e. Venous hum Common benign finding on auscultation in childhood Most likely caused by turbulence in the IJV Murmur characteristics o Continuous murmur o Tends to be louder during diastole and MC on right o Gets softer with IJV compression supine position, flexion of head. Laryngomalacia Is a benign self-limiting condition that disappears by age 2 in majority of cases Diagnosis is confirmed by flexible laryngoscopy o Shows the collapse of supraglottic structures during inspiration as well as an omega-shaped epiglottis Patients will have an inspiratory strider that is worse while supine and better prone.
SCFE MC presentation is an obese adolescent with hip pain Patients will have a positive Drehmann sign o Passive flexion causes external rotation and abduction X-ray will show a widening of hip joint and an displaced femoral head Treatment is with surgical pinning for stable and unstable. Chancroid Caused by H. Granuloma inguinale Caused by K. Lymphogranuloma venereum Caused by L1-L3 C. Learn more about Scribd Membership Home.
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For written exams, you might have to study every day over several months. We studied for medical state exams ourselves and have all the expertise to help you prepare in a way that we wish we could have. Based on our experience with the German, United States and international state exams, we created a learning plan that will help you revise the most important topics of Medicine to prepare for your final exams with ease. Each day in the study plan contains a series of Learning Cards linked to case-based questions to test you on your medical knowledge.
Each Learning Card is integrated with case-based multiple choice questions — tailored to the content you study. Putting students in these clinical scenarios asks them to apply medical knowledge for the most important topics, and ensures that they possess the clinical medical knowledge to rock their final exams.
Start Cardiology and Angiology questions. Start Hematology questions. Start Pneumology questions. Start Gastroenterology questions. Start Endocrinology questions. Start Nephrology questions. Start Rheumatology and Immunology questions. No learning cards today! Use the day to revise whatever topics you had trouble with the last few days. We also set up a set of questions for to answer today as revision of the last few days. Start Internal Medicine questions for revision I.
Start Internal Medicine questions for revision II. That was a tough chapter, right? Take some time to revise all those bugs that you had trouble memorizing. You can also take this day to have a closer look at infectious diseases that are especially common in your specific region.
Start Pediatrics questions. Congratulations, you are almost halfway through! Take two days to read through any topic from Pediatrics that was difficult for you. Check your knowledge with our Pediatrics question sets:.An underlying cause is rarely identifiable, but risk factors include prior chemotherapy and radiation therapyas well as hereditary syndromes such as Down syndrome.
AML is also associated with pre-existing hematologic disorders e. The first diagnostic steps include a complete blood count and peripheral blood smear to determine the WBC count and the presence of blasts. Bone marrow biopsy or aspiration with subsequent cytogenetic analysis and immunophenotyping confirm the diagnosis. A chemotherapy regimen consisting of high-dose induction and low-dose consolidation and maintenance cycles is the mainstay of treatment.
Additional measures, such as allogeneic stem cell transplantationmay be indicated in patients with poor prognostic factors e. Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified. References:  . References:  . References:   .
Clinical features are either related to bone marrow failure, infiltration of organs by leukemic cells, or a combination of both. Fever in a patient with acute leukemia must always be treated as a sign of infection until proven otherwise! References:    . Myelo genous leukemia is myelo peroxidase positive. References:          . Chemotherapy regimens are comprised of induction, followed by consolidation, and finally maintenance therapy.
The choice of chemotherapeutic agents is based on the cytogenetics of the leukemic cells. A t 15 ;17 translocation causes the retinoic acid receptor to change, preventing myeloblast differentiation from occuring under physiologic levels of retinoic acid. Thus, high doses of all-trans-retinoic acid vitamin A may induce remission by causing malignant cells to mature. References:      .
References:        . References:  . We list the most important complications. The selection is not exhaustive. The most common specific abnormality in childhood B-ALL is the t 12 ; 21 translocationwhich is associated with a favorable outcome. References:      . AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities e. Approach Initial tests: CBC ; and peripheral blood smear ; determine WBC count and the presence of blasts Confirmatory test : bone marrow aspiration and biopsy examine morphology, histochemistry, cytogenetics, and immunophenotyping Further tests: if organ involvement is suspected e.
Approach Aggressive chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is indicated in patients with poor prognostic factors or who do not achieve remission with chemotherapy. Supportive measures are vital to manage severely immunocompromised patients and prevent treatment-related complications.
Chemotherapy Chemotherapy regimens are comprised of induction, followed by consolidation, and finally maintenance therapy. Re- induction therapy goal: massive reduction of tumor cell count Only indicated in case of relapse or failure of primary induction therapy Duration: 4—6 weeks Consolidation therapy goal: destruction of remaining tumor cells Begin after complete remission is achieved Duration: several months Medium doses ALL regimen: variable drug regimens Maintenance therapy goal: maintaining remission Duration: up to 24 months Low doses ALL regimen: may include methotrexatevincristine ;glucocorticoids Common agents used in the initial treatment acute leukemia ALL   AML Standard regimen Vincristine Glucocorticoids Cyclophosphamide Doxorubicin L- asparaginase Cytarabine Anthracyclines e.
Preventive CNS treatment Intrathecal chemotherapy : chemotherapetic therapy administered directly into the subarachnoid space via spinal tap or a device placed under the scalp ALL : indicated for all children to prevent meningeal leukemia even if no CNS involvement is detected AML : only indicated after diagnostic measures have confirmed CNS involvement CNS radiotherapy Not routinely used because of associated risk of secondary malignancies and endocrine e.
Reserved for patients who do not respond to intrathecal chemotherapy or who develop impingement of important CNS structures e. References:       Allogeneic stem cell transplantation Indication: poor prognostic factors e. Surveillance: regular inspection of oropharynx, skin, and catheter sites; regular chest x-rays or CT to detect pulmonary infection Advise patients to pay special attention to personal hygiene e.Thomas Graf - the-hit-factory.
Arranged by Thomas Graf. Score, Set of Parts. Published by Thomas Graf - the-hit-factory. Great arrangement of A. Parlows famous Polka, in 3 voices in all keys. Playable for any trio of instruments. Easy to play — offers big fun and catches any audience!
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Anatomy Shelf Notes PDF Free Download |100 Cases Anatomy USMLE Step 1
Click to Enlarge. Write a Review.It is the first in a series of three exams that comprise the United States Medical Licensing Examination, all of which students must pass in order to become a licensed physician in the United States. Typically, the exam is taken once medical students have completed their foundational sciences in their second year, before their clerkships.
However, some curricula are tailored in such a way that students take it after their clerkships. Generally, the Step 1 exam will cover these traditionally defined disciplines: anatomy, behavioral sciences, biochemistry, biostatistics and epidemiology, microbiology, pathology, pharmacology and physiology. It also touches upon these interdisciplinary areas: genetics, aging, immunology, nutrition and molecular and cell biology.
The test is administered at any of several Prometric computer testing sites. Step 1 is a one-day exam. It is divided into seven minute blocks and taken in one 8-hour testing session. Each block will usually not exceed 40 questions, and the entire exam will not exceed questions.
Mastering time-management for exam day is almost as important as mastering Step 1 topics. The right study tool should train you not just to understand topics, but to draw from that knowledge quickly and effectively. The exam is graded from awith a minimum passing score being Students usually get their grade three to four weeks after the exam.
Should you fail the exam, you can take it again up to six timesbut do be aware that your failing grades could follow you through your career. The pressure to do well can feel overwhelming. Students often have trouble dealing with what feels like too much information about 2 years worth of materials!
Not to mention having to recall information learned very early on in your studies. Getting exam-day-ready comes down to getting the right resources and tools. Budget for a few, high-quality resources that perform on multiple levels instead of shelling out for too many. What You Need to Know to Prepare. Check It Out. What topics does the Step 1 exam cover? How, when and where can I take it?
What can I do to prepare for Step 1? Ideally, the best resource you can find will offer a combination of the following features: A comprehensive Qbank A cross-linked, information- and multimedia-rich medical Knowledge Library The ability to access both the Qbank and Knowledge Library simultaneously as you study Smart features that can enhance critical thinking and problem-solving approaches High-yield pathological and histological images An interface that simulates exam day conditions Progress-tracking capabilities.Also, the Anatomy Shelf Notes PDF file has been uploaded to our online repository for the safer downloading of the file.
So, happy free ebook download! Step-1 assesses the understanding and application of basic science knowledge to practice medicine in the USA. Also, It is concerned with the principles and mechanisms which are being applied regarding health, disease, and therapy. Step-1 emphasizes the knowledge of the basic sciences and an evaluation of their concepts. Best Wishes to all. Furthermore, please bear in mind that we do not own copyrights to these books.
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